Open Source Software

Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance. “Source code” is the part of software that most computer users don’t ever see; it’s the code computer programmers can manipulate to change how a piece of software—a “program” or “application”—works. Programmers who have access to a computer program’s source […]

User Interface Design

User Interface (UI) Design focuses on anticipating what users might need to do and ensuring that the interface has elements that are easy to access, understand, and use to facilitate those actions. UI brings together concepts from interaction design, visual design, and information architecture. Everything stems from knowing your users, including understanding their goals, skills, […]

Software Design

Software design is the process of defining software methods, functions, objects, and the overall structure and interaction of your code so that the resulting functionality will satisfy your users requirements. There are many different ways of designing software, almost all of which involve coming up with an initial design and refining it as necessary. Different […]

Software requirements

Software development consists of many knowledge-intensive processes. One of the most difficult to model, however, is requirements elicitation. This paper presents a mathematical model of the requirements elicitation process that clearly shows the critical role of knowledge in its performance. One meta-process of requirements elicitation, selection of an appropriate elicitation technique, is also captured in the model. The values of this model are: (1) improved understanding of what needs to be performed during elicitation helps analysts improve their elicitation efforts, (2) improved understanding of how elicitation techniques are selected helps less experienced analysts be as successful as more experienced analysts, and (3) as we improve our ability to perform elicitation, we improve the likelihood that the systems we create meet their intended customers’ needs.


Requirements elicitation is recognized as one of the most critical, knowledge-intensive activities of software development; poor execution of elicitation will almost guarantee that the final project is a complete failure. Since project failures are so rampant, it is quite likely that improving how the industry performs elicitation could have a dramatic effect on the success record of the industry.

To better understand the importance of the current paper, let us contrast its goal with the goal of the many dozens of writings, e.g., that present a specific methodology for elicitation broken down into multiple steps.

In this paper we use specific definitions for some terms:

  • Requirements Process. The activities that when performed result in an understanding and documentation of the desired external behavior (i.e., the requirements) of a system.
  • Process Model. A representation showing the processes to be performed in order to achieve some well-defined goal.
  • Technique. A documented series of steps along with rules for their performance and criteria for verifying completion. A technique usually applies to a single process
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Unified Modeling Language (UML)


        The development of UML began in late 1994 when Grady Booch and Jim Rumbaugh of Rational Software Corporation began their work on unifying the Booch and OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methods. In the Fall of 1995, Ivar Jacobson and his Objectory company joined Rational and this unification effort, merging in the OOSE (Object-Oriented Software Engineering) method.

As the primary authors of the Booch, OMT, and OOSE methods, Grady Booch, Jim Rumbaugh, and Ivar Jacobson were motivated to create a unified modeling language for three reasons. First, these methods were already evolving toward each other independently. It made sense to continue that evolution together rather than apart, eliminating the potential for any unnecessary and gratuitous differences that would further confuse users. Second, by unifying the semantics and notation, they could bring some stability to the object-oriented marketplace, allowing projects to settle on one mature modeling language and letting tool builders focus on delivering more useful features. Third, they expected that their collaboration would yield improvements in all three earlier methods, helping them to capture lessons learned and to address problems that none of their methods previously handled well.

The efforts of Booch, Rumbaugh, and Jacobson resulted in the release of the UML 0.9 and 0.91 documents in June and October of 1996. During 1996, the UML authors invited and received feedback from the general community. They incorporated this feedback, but it was clear that additional focused attention was still required.

A UML is a diagram that includes a collection of elements such as:

  • Programming Language Statements
  • Actors: specify a role played by a user or any other system interacting with the subject.
  • Activities: These are tasks, which must take place in order to fulfill an operation contract. They are represented in activity
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Ethics in SE

A code of ethics is a set of rules used as a guide for companies to demonstrate the expected behavior from the employees. The main purpose of these regulations is to conduct employee’s actions in accordance with values and ethical standards (Business Dictionary, 2016). In software engineering, it is almost the same rules that are applied to every software company with just a few variations.

This code of ethics was created by the Association for Computing Machinery in association with the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Software engineers shall commit themselves to making the analysis, specification, design, development, testing and maintenance of software a beneficial and respected profession. In accordance with their commitment to the health, safety and welfare of the public, software engineers shall adhere to the following Eight Principles:

1. PUBLIC – Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest.

2. CLIENT AND EMPLOYER – Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer consistent with the public interest.

3. PRODUCT – Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible.

4. JUDGMENT – Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment.

5. MANAGEMENT – Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance.

6. PROFESSION – Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest.

7. COLLEAGUES – Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues.

8. SELF – Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession.

Waterfal Method



The Waterfall Model was first Process Model to be introduced. It is also referred to as a linear-sequential life cycle model. It is very simple to understand and use. In a waterfall model, each phase must be completed before the next phase can begin and there is no overlapping in the phases.

The sequential phases in Waterfall model are:

  • Requirement Gathering and analysis
  • System Design
  • Implementation
  • Integration and Testing
  • Deployment of system
  • Maintenance


The advantage of waterfall development is that it allows for departmentalization and control. A schedule can be set with deadlines for each stage of development and a product can proceed through the development process model phases one by one. Each phase of development proceeds in strict order.


The disadvantage of waterfall development is that it does not allow for much reflection or revision. Once an application is in the testing stage, it is very difficult to go back and change something that was not well-documented or thought upon in the concept stage.